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Monolithic kernel is a single large process running entirely in a single address space. It is a single static binary file. In microkernels, the kernel is broken down into separate processes, known as servers. Some of the servers run in kernel space and some run in user-space. os's that use Monolithic kernel - Linux os's that use microkernel - windows, I read about this in my sister's book so I have some knowledge about it. Hope I helps you 😉
in monolithic kernal user Services and kernal services both resides in kernal space so it is more faster compare to microkernal because user programs can directly communicate with kernal. in microkernal user services and kernal services are separated from the kernal. user services resides in user space while kernal services resides in the kernal space so if user process want to use kernal then communication happens with message passing which makes microkernal slower. microkernal is more secure than monolithic because if user service crashes then the entire systen will not crash. but in monolithic if service crashes then whole system will crash because the services are in kernal space. in monolithic user and kernal services resides in kernal space which makes the monolithic kernal big. in microkernal user services and kernal services are separated which makes makes microkernal smaller. when first microkernal was invented it was 50% slower than monolithic kernal ! Monolithic kernal uses by Unix, Linux.