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What is the difference in the ‘~’ and the ‘^’?

What is the difference in the ‘~’ and the ‘^’ in the semver syntax, such as that used in npm package.json file? Please Explain Update by David Carroll: I added relevant tags to make this really good question easier to find.

9th Apr 2021, 1:48 PM
Matthias
Matthias - avatar
18 Answers
+ 16
[Part 2 of 4] It might be easier seeing examples to compare differences and similarities. -- tilda: "~1.7.0" or "~1.7" - All [patch] versions between 1.7.0 up to, but less than, 1.8.0. caret: "^1.7.0" or "^1.7" - All versions between 1.7.0, up to, but less than 2.0.0. -- tilda: "~1.7.3" - Same as "~1.7.0", except it begins with 1.7.3. caret: "^1.7.3" - Same as "^1.7.0", except it begins with 1.7.3. -- tilda: "~1" - All [minor] and [patch] versions for 1.x.x. caret: "^1" - Same as "~1". -- tilda: "~1.0" or "~1.0.0" - All [patch] versions for 1.0.x. caret: "^1.0" or "^1.0.0" - Differs from the tilda here, but is same as "~1" and "^1" -- tilda: "~0.3" or "~0.3.0" - All [patch] versions from 0.3.0, but less than, 0.4.0. caret: "^0.3" or "^0.3.0" - Identical to the tilda example.
10th Apr 2021, 7:40 AM
David Carroll
David Carroll - avatar
+ 11
All these are same: ^1 ~1 1.x 1.* 1 You can have similar matching with different operations, it's like doing 1+1=2=3-1
9th Apr 2021, 3:21 PM
Valen.H. ~
Valen.H. ~ - avatar
+ 8
Matiyas The ~ means tilde In JavaScript, ~ Bitwise NOT operator is commonly used right before an indexOf() to do a boolean check (truthy/falsy) on a string. On its own, indexOf() returns the index number of a String object passed in. So if -1 is returned it will be turned into 0 which is falsy. Anything that is not falsy is truthy. where as ^ is a this or that best answer to xor is as reference https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Operators/Bitwise_XOR https://code.sololearn.com/cbXtC1XmN2jO/?ref=app
9th Apr 2021, 3:24 PM
BroFar
BroFar - avatar
+ 8
[Part 3 of 4] Helpful reference links to review: https://docs.npmjs.com/about-semantic-versioning https://github.com/npm/node-semver#tilde-ranges-123-12-1 https://github.com/npm/node-semver#caret-ranges-123-025-004 Best for Last: To really see how this works, checkout the following link to test "~" vs "^" differences: - https://semver.npmjs.com/ I recommend changing the package to mocha for a good set of sample versions to review. Test and compare the following versions using both the tilda(~) and caret(^) range prefixes: ============ tilda(~) Examples: ======== "~1" (same as "^1") - Range: 1.0.0 to 1.21.5 "~0" (same as "^0") - Range: 0.0.1 to 0.14.1 "~1.7.0" or "~1.7" - Range: 1.7.0 to 1.7.4 --> "^" extends range to 1.21.5 "~1.7.3" - Range: 1.7.3 to 1.7.4 --> "^" extends range to 1.21.5 "~0.0.3" - Range: 0.0.3 to 0.0.8 --> "^" only allows 0.0.3
10th Apr 2021, 7:41 AM
David Carroll
David Carroll - avatar
+ 7
[Part 1 of 4] Tilda(~) and caret(^) specify a range of [minor] and [patch] versions allowed for a given package. Consider the semver format for "1.7.0": [major].[minor].[patch] When only [major] is specified (ie "~1" or "^1"), all [minor] and [patch] versions are allowed. Ex: All versions from "1.0.0", less than "2.0.0". Otherwise, for "~" and "^", ranges are different when at least the [minor] version is included. For instance, tilda(~) ranges (ie "~1.1" and "~1.1.0") only allow subsequent [patch] updates within the same [minor] version. Ex: All versions from "1.1.0", less than "1.2.0". Caret(^) ranges (ie "^1.1" and "^1.1.0") expand to all subsequent updates within the same [major] version. Ex: All versions from "1.1.0", less than "2.0.0". However, when [major] is 0 (ie "^0.3" and "^0.3.2"), caret(^) ranges are limited to subsequent [patch] updates within the same [minor] version. Ex: All versions from "0.3.2", less than "0.4.0".
10th Apr 2021, 7:39 AM
David Carroll
David Carroll - avatar
+ 6
[Part 4 of 4] ============ caret(^) Examples: ======== "^1" or "^1.0" or "^1.0.0" - Range: 1.0.0 to 1.21.5 --> "~1" has the same range. --> "~1.0" or "~1.0.0" reduces range to 1.0.3 "^1.7.0" or "^1.7" - Range: 1.7.0 to 1.21.5 --> "~" reduces range to 1.7.4 "^1.7.3" - Range: 1.7.3 to 1.21.5 --> "~" reduces range to 1.7.4 "^0" (same as "~0.0") - Range: 0.0.1 to 0.14.1 "^0.3.0" or "^0.3" (same as using tilda "~") - Range: 0.3.0 to 0.3.6 "^0.3.3" (same as "~0.3.3") - Range: 0.3.3 to 0.3.6 "^0.0.3" - Only 0.0.3 is allowed. --> "~" extends range from 0.0.3 to 0.0.8 "^0.0" (same as "~0.0") - Range: 0.0.1 to 0.0.8 ---- I can't believe how much effort this was to try to explain. I hope it was helpful.
10th Apr 2021, 7:41 AM
David Carroll
David Carroll - avatar
+ 5
Thank you very much BroFar it is so help full!
9th Apr 2021, 3:27 PM
Matthias
Matthias - avatar
+ 5
Avi Mishra Regarding your answer: "^ Installs the exact version , whereas , ~ installs the latest version of that module." This would be incorrect. Take a look at my responses to learn what I mean. 😉
21st Apr 2021, 2:45 PM
David Carroll
David Carroll - avatar
+ 4
Thanks Valen.H. ~
9th Apr 2021, 3:23 PM
Matthias
Matthias - avatar
+ 4
Hmmm... I saw a notification that I was mentioned here by Matiyas (the OP). However, I'm unable to see where I'm mentioned. 🤔 Also... I'm not sure why BroFar's answer was accepted as the correct answer. It doesn't actually address the specific context of the question, which states: ---- "What is the difference in the ‘~' and the ‘^' in the semver syntax, such as that used in npm package.json file?" ---- Assuming the OP still wants an explanation, I'll post my response in follow-up posts.
10th Apr 2021, 7:36 AM
David Carroll
David Carroll - avatar
+ 3
^ Installs the exact version , whereas , ~ installs the latest version of that module.
21st Apr 2021, 2:00 PM
Avi Mishra
Avi Mishra - avatar
+ 3
'~' is a bitwise opreator "NOT" which reverses a bit 1->0 and 0->1 like if we see the number 5(or in bit form "101") ~5 -> 010 reverses the zeros and ones While '^' bitwise opreator "XOR" will evaluate 1 if the corresponding bits are d/t Again if we take numbers 5 & 6 101^110 -> 011
9th Apr 2022, 12:40 PM
Dagota
Dagota - avatar
+ 2
david19 and Noah Oberlin please do not spam the question and answer forum with links that are not related to the question asked by the user. Please follow the forum guidelines. https://www.sololearn.com/discuss/1316935/?ref=app
26th Aug 2021, 4:10 AM
BroFar
BroFar - avatar
+ 1
I don't know Is ^ a bit operator?
24th Apr 2021, 9:39 AM
sweetswing2460
+ 1
All these are same: ^1 ~1 1.x 1.* 1 You can have similar matching with different operations, it's like doing 1+1=2=3-1
25th Apr 2021, 5:25 PM
Mohammadhosein Dehghani
Mohammadhosein Dehghani - avatar
0
there name
2nd Jan 2023, 11:11 AM
Amjad Ayoub
Amjad Ayoub - avatar
0
In Semantic Versioning (SemVer), the ^ and ~ characters are used to specify version constraints in a package.json file. These characters are known as "caret" and "tilde", respectively. The ^ character specifies a version constraint that allows patch-level changes for the specified version. For example, if a package.json file specifies a dependency as ^1.2.3, it will allow any patch-level changes for version 1.2.x, such as 1.2.4, 1.2.5, etc., but will not allow minor or major level changes, such as 2.0.0 or 1.3.0. The ~ character specifies a version constraint that allows patch and minor-level changes for the specified version. For example, if a package.json file specifies a dependency as ~1.2.3, it will allow patch-level and minor-level changes for version 1.2.x, such as 1.2.4, 1.2.5, 1.3.0, etc., but will not allow major level changes, such as 2.0.0.
5th Jan 2023, 10:01 PM
Aditya Dixit
0
Here are some examples to illustrate the difference between ^ and ~: ^1.2.3 allows: 1.2.4, 1.2.5, 1.2.6, etc. ^1.2.3 does not allow: 1.3.0, 2.0.0, etc. ~1.2.3 allows: 1.2.4, 1.2.5, 1.3.0, 1.3.1, etc. ~1.2.3 does not allow: 2.0.0, etc. ^0.2.3 allows: 0.2.4, 0.2.5, 0.2.6, etc. ^0.2.3 does not allow: 0.3.0, 1.0.0, etc. ~1.2 allows: 1.2.0, 1.2.1, 1.3.0, 1.3.1, etc. ~1.2 does not allow: 2.0.0, etc. ^1.2.x allows: 1.2.0, 1.2.1, 1.2.2, etc. ^1.2.x does not allow: 1.3.0, 2.0.0, etc.
5th Jan 2023, 10:02 PM
Aditya Dixit