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What data structures are and which are common can simply be looked up, e.g.: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_structure The app has a series of user-made lessons on a variety of them, the simpler ones have (basic) sample implementations in different languages. Here is the introduction: https://www.sololearn.com/learn/773/?ref=app Decent knowledge of pointers and dynamic memory management, maybe templates, will be helpful if you are looking to implement some in C++.
But in simple terms I dont like using wikipedia everything is confusing