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You can make a web app using python Django framework. Then covert into a hybrid app using iconic framework and phonegap. Basically, in this process, you are using different programming and markup languages.
in c/c++ or similar lower level, probably possible with binding. basicly the c/c++ compiled into library dll/so then other language use that to execute the code. i think numpy use c++ in similar way, i cant remember similar this are also possible in JVM based language, like for example Scala using Java class last one is using web server or such as the "state controller" for the app. not the best for offline software imo,
As far as using two language in one application goes it's entirely possible. It's called mixed language programming and has been done since the dawn of computing languages. Back in the 80s it was common to write parts of a program in BASIC, C, Pascal or whatever and call assembly language routines for speed critical sections. Any language that can use a static or dynamic library can be used with any other language that can produce those libraries in the required format. As Taste has already pointed out there are Python modules that are written in other languages but use Python wrappers to interface with them. TkInter is such a wrapper module that interfaces with the Tk libraries, which are written in C. That is an example of mixed language programming because code written in one language is executing code written in another language. Two distinctly separate applications running on two physically different pieces of hardware that communicate with each other is not mixed language programming. Java is capable of running software on another system through Remote Method Invokation (RMI) but that only allows one Java Virtual Machine to do that with another JVM as I understand it. I hope this clears up some of the confusion.
I think. It is not possible. It will be hard for interpreter or compiler to interpret or compile two languages at one interpreter or compiler. You can still use web technologies. But HTML and CSS are not considered as programming languages.