Can one develop a website with just HTML?
A boring one, yes.
https://code.sololearn.com/WykoN7bcDsgX/?ref=app Check out the languages section
Yes, you can make a website by just HTML but that will not look attractive so you have to use CSS for designing it.
For website you have to deal with database so you have to program with php or ruby and sql ...You website will not be a simple single html page so you have to host on server and have domain name with use of apache server for example.