What is the difference in the ‘~’ and the ‘^’? | SoloLearn: Learn to code for FREE!

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What is the difference in the ‘~’ and the ‘^’?

What is the difference in the ‘~’ and the ‘^’ in the semver syntax, such as that used in npm package.json file? Please Explain Update by David Carroll: I added relevant tags to make this really good question easier to find.

4/9/2021 1:48:15 PM

Matiyas

14 Answers

New Answer

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[Part 2 of 4] It might be easier seeing examples to compare differences and similarities. -- tilda: "~1.7.0" or "~1.7" - All [patch] versions between 1.7.0 up to, but less than, 1.8.0. caret: "^1.7.0" or "^1.7" - All versions between 1.7.0, up to, but less than 2.0.0. -- tilda: "~1.7.3" - Same as "~1.7.0", except it begins with 1.7.3. caret: "^1.7.3" - Same as "^1.7.0", except it begins with 1.7.3. -- tilda: "~1" - All [minor] and [patch] versions for 1.x.x. caret: "^1" - Same as "~1". -- tilda: "~1.0" or "~1.0.0" - All [patch] versions for 1.0.x. caret: "^1.0" or "^1.0.0" - Differs from the tilda here, but is same as "~1" and "^1" -- tilda: "~0.3" or "~0.3.0" - All [patch] versions from 0.3.0, but less than, 0.4.0. caret: "^0.3" or "^0.3.0" - Identical to the tilda example.

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Matiyas The ~ means tilde In JavaScript, ~ Bitwise NOT operator is commonly used right before an indexOf() to do a boolean check (truthy/falsy) on a string. On its own, indexOf() returns the index number of a String object passed in. So if -1 is returned it will be turned into 0 which is falsy. Anything that is not falsy is truthy. where as ^ is a this or that best answer to xor is as reference https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Operators/Bitwise_XOR https://code.sololearn.com/cbXtC1XmN2jO/?ref=app

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[Part 1 of 4] Tilda(~) and caret(^) specify a range of [minor] and [patch] versions allowed for a given package. Consider the semver format for "1.7.0": [major].[minor].[patch] When only [major] is specified (ie "~1" or "^1"), all [minor] and [patch] versions are allowed. Ex: All versions from "1.0.0", less than "2.0.0". Otherwise, for "~" and "^", ranges are different when at least the [minor] version is included. For instance, tilda(~) ranges (ie "~1.1" and "~1.1.0") only allow subsequent [patch] updates within the same [minor] version. Ex: All versions from "1.1.0", less than "1.2.0". Caret(^) ranges (ie "^1.1" and "^1.1.0") expand to all subsequent updates within the same [major] version. Ex: All versions from "1.1.0", less than "2.0.0". However, when [major] is 0 (ie "^0.3" and "^0.3.2"), caret(^) ranges are limited to subsequent [patch] updates within the same [minor] version. Ex: All versions from "0.3.2", less than "0.4.0".

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[Part 3 of 4] Helpful reference links to review: https://docs.npmjs.com/about-semantic-versioning https://github.com/npm/node-semver#tilde-ranges-123-12-1 https://github.com/npm/node-semver#caret-ranges-123-025-004 Best for Last: To really see how this works, checkout the following link to test "~" vs "^" differences: - https://semver.npmjs.com/ I recommend changing the package to mocha for a good set of sample versions to review. Test and compare the following versions using both the tilda(~) and caret(^) range prefixes: ============ tilda(~) Examples: ======== "~1" (same as "^1") - Range: 1.0.0 to 1.21.5 "~0" (same as "^0") - Range: 0.0.1 to 0.14.1 "~1.7.0" or "~1.7" - Range: 1.7.0 to 1.7.4 --> "^" extends range to 1.21.5 "~1.7.3" - Range: 1.7.3 to 1.7.4 --> "^" extends range to 1.21.5 "~0.0.3" - Range: 0.0.3 to 0.0.8 --> "^" only allows 0.0.3

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[Part 4 of 4] ============ caret(^) Examples: ======== "^1" or "^1.0" or "^1.0.0" - Range: 1.0.0 to 1.21.5 --> "~1" has the same range. --> "~1.0" or "~1.0.0" reduces range to 1.0.3 "^1.7.0" or "^1.7" - Range: 1.7.0 to 1.21.5 --> "~" reduces range to 1.7.4 "^1.7.3" - Range: 1.7.3 to 1.21.5 --> "~" reduces range to 1.7.4 "^0" (same as "~0.0") - Range: 0.0.1 to 0.14.1 "^0.3.0" or "^0.3" (same as using tilda "~") - Range: 0.3.0 to 0.3.6 "^0.3.3" (same as "~0.3.3") - Range: 0.3.3 to 0.3.6 "^0.0.3" - Only 0.0.3 is allowed. --> "~" extends range from 0.0.3 to 0.0.8 "^0.0" (same as "~0.0") - Range: 0.0.1 to 0.0.8 ---- I can't believe how much effort this was to try to explain. I hope it was helpful.

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Thank you very much BroFar it is so help full!

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Avi Mishra Regarding your answer: "^ Installs the exact version , whereas , ~ installs the latest version of that module." This would be incorrect. Take a look at my responses to learn what I mean. 😉

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All these are same: ^1 ~1 1.x 1.* 1 You can have similar matching with different operations, it's like doing 1+1=2=3-1

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Thanks Valen.H. ~

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Hmmm... I saw a notification that I was mentioned here by Matiyas (the OP). However, I'm unable to see where I'm mentioned. 🤔 Also... I'm not sure why BroFar's answer was accepted as the correct answer. It doesn't actually address the specific context of the question, which states: ---- "What is the difference in the ‘~' and the ‘^' in the semver syntax, such as that used in npm package.json file?" ---- Assuming the OP still wants an explanation, I'll post my response in follow-up posts.

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Thank you David Carroll Very clear answer.

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^ Installs the exact version , whereas , ~ installs the latest version of that module.

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I don't know Is ^ a bit operator?

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All these are same: ^1 ~1 1.x 1.* 1 You can have similar matching with different operations, it's like doing 1+1=2=3-1