Python is a good language because of the simplicity, and high level use. I assume you already have a background in basic python.
As far as jobs are concerned. Python seems to be mostly used in Artifical intelligence, machine learning, and especially in neural networks. I have made a neural network by scratch and it is definitely a challenge. You can be a data scientist which usually uses python and SQL and the pay is very good. Upwards of 150k salary. You can research more on thst job. Those tend to be the biggest uses although it is used in smaller places as well.
The modules/frameworks that I personally would recommend first is tkinter. It is used as a graphical interface and makes it really easy to visual your code. Numpy is a good choice and is mainly used if you want to get into A. I. And neural networks. Also Django is popular for web development. Pygame is used to create small games, but it is mosty a hobby use not commercially viable.