-Classes and Objects
(Encapsulation is the mechanism by which data and associated operations/methods are bound together and thus hide the data from outside world. It’s also called data hiding. In c++, encapsulation achieved using the access specifiers (private, public and protected). Data members will be declared as private (thus protecting from direct access from outside) and public methods will be provided to access these data.)
that's what i m learning these days with Java
Inheritance : Think of it two classes are working together as parent and child.
Abstraction: You don't concern yourself with deep things java do for you it's abstract
Polymorphism: Not sure about that but it's related to Inheritance, with overriding and overloading stuff
Encapsulation: Like i said above you r working with two classes and if anyone has private stuff you have to follow certain rules to use that private stuff. U use
setters and getters for accessing that in your main class.
Object & Methods: Like @D_Stark said these are like real world object, for example A Car is an object now it's specifications like color, engine etc. are its state and accelerate its behaviour. you as a creator define the state and behaviours by playing with Methods & Objects.
OOPS are the foundation of any object oriented language. If you really want to master this concept, my best piece of advice is to learn each one at a time and solve something about what you learned. Syntax won't do anything alone but it's the PROBLEM you solve related to this concept would make you a master in OOPS.